- Psychotherapy for adolescents and adults.
- family psychotherapy
- child psychotherapy
- Alcoholism and drug addiction
- Couple therapy
Brief and basic history of psychology and its different currents
Psychology is the science that deals with the behavior and mental processes of individuals. Psychology explores concepts such as perception, attention, motivation, emotion, attitudes, aptitudes… The origins of the study of psychology come from philosophy (study of wisdom or knowledge) in its attempt to turn it into a measurable and quantifiable.
There are many currents or psychological schools and these have their explanation in the diversity of problems and types of people. For this reason, all of them can be effective at a given moment, in a specific problem and in a specific person.
The main psychological currents are (trying very hard to explain it in a couple of sentences):
– Psychoanalysis, its founder, Sigmund Freud, his position is that the main motivation of man is the search for pleasure and avoid pain, believes in psychic determinism and speaks of psychosexual development. The unconscious is essential.
– Behaviorism, its founders are Watson, Skinner and Pavlov, for them there is only what is verifiable, they talk about learning and the environment. Positive reinforcement or punishment will determine the continuation or extinction of a behavior. – Gestalt: Founded by Frederick Perls in Germany. The premise is that the whole is more than the sum of its parts and perception plays a fundamental role. – Humanism by Rogers, this current highlights the human part of man and his possibility and need to grow.
For these last two currents, self-acceptance and self-responsibility are central themes. – Structuralism and its parents, W. Max Wundt (founder) and Bradf Ord Titchener (developer). Its object of study is consciousness and its method is introspection, but not the introspection of Descartes, but the analysis of the process in which we use consciousness and the development of brain connections.
– Cognitivism: The object of study is the processing of information. Fundamental: attention, perception, memory and thought. The therapy is based on cognitive restructuring.
There are many other psychological currents, but basically they come from these main ones.
Reasons for seeking psychological help
Low self-esteem, depression, anguish, sadness, loneliness, grief, separation, mood disorders in general, fears, phobias, panic, anxiety, stress, anger and anger management, explosive behaviors, compulsions, compulsive eating, shopping compulsive, smoking, personality disorders, emotional instability, eating disorders and obesity, relationship problems, infidelity, jealousy, conflicts, affective dependence, problems with sexuality, family problems, unemployment, coexistence, need for advice to parents, need for talk to someone objective and impartial about different points of view of our lives.
There are many opinions about when and why people attend psychological therapy, there are those who think that “everyone” should always do therapy, others that it should be done at a certain stage of life, others that only when one feels bad. The reality is that, regardless of what is said, one contemplates the possibility of doing a therapy when on a day-to-day basis, after having used one’s own resources to get ahead, one reaches the conclusion that one cannot “their own methods” and it is necessary to use professional methods, looking for a comprehensive but objective look at the same time. In addition, psychologists have tools that help people find the answers to their questions, and produce behaviors, attitudes, perceptions and thoughts that lead people to feel good about themselves.
Generally, therapy is usually attended, not when it is contemplated, but when the situation implies a state of crisis, and that is when that contemplation passes into action. Just as one does not require medical services when one feels well, the same happens with the psychologist, one does not require their services if there is no apparent reason; however, just as preventive measures are needed for physical health, psychological preventive measures should be taken into account and even more so, because we are constantly invaded by the emotional contamination of the environment. On the other hand, we must differentiate that the crises appear due to a picture of symptoms that remain and depending on the resistance of each one is when it is decided to do a therapy. The issue is that the lack of symptoms is related to health; that is, “nothing hurts, so I’m not sick.” It is the great mistake of many of us. In psychology, sometimes the problems are not in the symptoms, they settle in an underlying way in the psyche and appear as a symptom after several years of suffering from it. Those underlying issues are often unresolved conflicts or concerns that weren’t paid attention to at the time and are now intrusively coming to light almost unavoidably.
Another issue and even deeper, is the way we learn to perceive our experience, each person has a life story and it has marked him enough to have opinions with a particular style of living and it is based on the style with who manages himself in everyday life to think that what happens to him is for one reason and not for another. This can lead him to experience situations of which he is unaware and also of which he does not perceive as problems, even though they are.
For all of the above, among other considerations, psychological therapy is suggested and recommended to reflect on the things that happen to human beings in general, take an hour of your life and talk to a trusted professional. He will know how to guide you. Unlike confidants and friends, who although they are of great help, a therapist is prepared to maintain an objective look, without his interventions being tinged with subjectivity.
Define the problem- Diagnosis.
A psychodiagnosis identifies the general characteristics of the problem. Following scientifically established guidelines to know specifically what psychological processes are behind the patient’s problems, the circumstances that trigger or enhance them.
The therapist and the patient must define the problem together and agree on the steps to follow.
Methodology The methods used are varied: interviews, graphic tests, inventories, scales, tests that are designed to detect specific anomalies; according to the case. The psychological theoretical current to follow is basically dynamic, although it depends on the nature of the problem, other more behavioral-cognitive currents may be used. The idea is a practical and inclusive approach to address problems. Each person and each problem are unique situations and deserve to be evaluated each time. In addition, the human being is psycho-bio-social and the way in which it must be approached must also be systemic.
Based on the diagnosis, the objectives to be achieved are decided together and the steps to be taken to achieve them are suggested. Seen in a general way, the fundamental objective of all therapy is to make the patient feel happy with himself, or at least more satisfied with the situation that afflicts him. In addition, every therapist’s objective is to give the patient the tools so that he can find his way and find his answers.
Sessions and dynamics of the therapist-patient relationship
The sessions are dynamic and last exactly 50 minutes.
All sessions will take place in the office and require an appointment. The patient will also have 24 hours before to cancel it, if necessary.
During the hour the patient will explain the reasons why he goes to psychological help and the therapist will intervene with questions and remarks that help the patient clarify his situation. The sessions are absolutely confidential.
What is worked on in the session can be complemented with tasks that help the change process outside the consultation. This will help a gradual and progressive advance. Eventually the patient will be taught relaxation tools, cognitive practices, etc., as the case may be. As for the duration of therapy, of course it depends on each case; On the one hand, there is the seriousness and chronicity of the problem that we face, but on the other, the understanding and dedication that each patient puts into their therapy. Psychotherapy will help, but it does not work if there is no collaboration from the patient. There is no magic and it is not enough just to want to change, you also have to work on it.
Psychologists know ways to treat fears, anxiety, phobias, sadness, obsessions, depression, grief, loneliness, personality disorders, low self-esteem, internal conflicts, problems with our behaviors, relationship problems, family problems, problems with society, addictions , compulsions; They work individually, in pairs, in families or in groups.
In the case of finding a situation where the therapy cannot help the patient, it will be clearly transmitted and a recommendation will be indicated in this regard.
Focusing on the problem:-Anxiety disorders: phobias, social anxiety, among others. – Depression: Episodes of sadness, crying, mood disorders, childhood depression, separation duels from parents, moving, death of a family member, among others. -Behavior disorders: oppositionalism, dissocial behavior, aggressiveness, excessive anger , extreme shyness, difficulty expressing oneself and/or speaking in public. – Family, school and/or social difficulties that generate emotional discomfort such as sadness, fear, inhibition or aggressiveness. – Low self-esteem, insecurity. – Difficulties in social relationships, isolation or social withdrawal, lack of social skills, among others – Sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, abandonment, family neglect. – Management of chronic or acute physical illnesses (cancer, heart disease, burns, mutilations, etc.). – Psychosomatic illnesses. Physical discomfort without remission despite medical assistance, headaches, stomachaches, constant fatigue. – Significant mood swings. – Academic performance problems in children and adolescents. – Enuresis or encopresis (lack of sphincter control). – Insomnia, increased sleepiness or other sleep disorders. – Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.- Bullying (bullying). – Abuse of substances such as alcohol, illicit drugs and other substances. – Difficulty adapting to another culture, country, language.